You can change the default value of an enum element during declaration (if necessary). This is needed for the call to std::visit. We should not ship class-typed NTTPs in C++20 without thoroughly exploring the consequences. I am working on an assignment for my c++ class where I am doing operator overloading. In C++, stream insertion operator “<<” is used for output and extraction operator “>>” is used for input. In this example, void operator ++ operator function is defined (inside Test class). In C++, after overloading the less-than operator (<), standard sorting functions can be used to sort some classes. A use of the operator is only a shorthand for an explicit call of the operator function. I get a compiler. Note that enum class in C++11 will eliminate the need of this idiom. Except for automatic variables, operator new is the only way to call an object's constructor in C++. Thus, if overloaded correctly, two objects of the fractions class would, when added together, produce the result of a third object which will correctly add the numerator and denominator data members of the objects like we do in real life. Date d2=d1-1. This is sometimes done to implement automatic memory management (reference counting) or persistence. This write-up is (to the largest part) a reiteration of a blog post by Anthony Williams. Find more on PROGRAM OF OVERLOADING ARITHMETIC OPERATORS ON OBJECTS OF CLASS FLOAT HAVING AN DATA MEMBERS OF TYPE FLOAT Or get search suggestion and latest updates. I'm trying to figure out how to overload operator[] for use in a 2d array of ints class: TwoDArray. generalized to. Type safe enum idiom wraps the actual enumerations in a class or a struct to provide strong type-safety. To overload operator for class C so that we can. It was approved by International Organization for Standardization (ISO) on 12 August 2011, replacing C++03, superseded by C++14 on 18 August 2014 and later, by C++17. Once P0732 has appeared in a published standard, it will be too late to fix it. org/show_bug. This of course only works for values of types for which there is an overloading of the operator<<. Each enum definition is a new type that is separate from other enum types, and as such they cannot be mixed. Tags for Operator Overloading using Friend Function in C++. Every operator overload that we use in C#, gets converted to a function call in IL. Rules for C++ programmers. Functions that overload operators need to be marked with the operator modifier. To use the operator + to add two objects, you need to overload it. Friend function using operator overloading offers better flexibility to the class. Operators Overloading in C++ You can redefine or overload most of the built-in operators available in C++. A nice helper function for C++11's enum classes So C++11 added enum classes which wonderfully don't leak into the global namespace. Addition of enums as you're doing is only always valid for flags. This means that a method to overload a relational operator will take one argument rather than the usual two. Note that C does not support operator overloading. Inside >> the class declaration, you would write: >> >> friend ostream& operator << (ostream& out, const Date& d); Look at the class definition, he's already done that. Implementing the Operator Overloading. NET platform. It creates a new enum called enum_b::constant that won't conflict with enum_a::constant. The overloaded operator << should add "" to the stream where is the real part and is the imaginary part of the complex number which is then passed as a parameter to the overloaded operator. In addition to overloaded global new functions, each class can have its own set of operator new and delete functions. I have the following redundant-feeling design to convert between enums and strings regarding a class that stores enums. If we have two objects of complex number class as fellows,complex obj3 =obj1 ^obj2 ;. I'd like to make a template overload of operator | for an enum inside a class. Arrays as Class Members in C++ ; Write A C++ Program To Calculate Simple Interest. If I leave "enum class" in (I prefer type-safe enums), this fails to compile at all with the following error:. 7 No More Operator Overloading There are no means provided by which programmers can overload the standard arithmetic operators. Operator overloading. There is at most one operator delete and one operator delete[] per class. A vector is similar to an array, in a sense where a series of elements are stored with the same variable name. Write A C++ Program For Addition & Multiplication Of Two Matrices By Overloading + And * Operators. Take the example code snippet 1: What would you expect to happen? When compiled on Microsoft Visual Studio 2005, main() returns true. These operators are technically binary arithmetic operators, so when they are class members the "left" side becomes the class that resolves the operator and the "right" side is the only argument to the operator. Requiring the creation of a class and having to completely ignore the fact that the person learning might not know what they are yet is a bit imprudent. We should not ship class-typed NTTPs in C++20 without thoroughly exploring the consequences. Find more on PROGRAM OF OVERLOADING ARITHMETIC OPERATORS ON OBJECTS OF CLASS FLOAT HAVING AN DATA MEMBERS OF TYPE FLOAT Or get search suggestion and latest updates. enum direction {East, West, North, South}dir;. enum operator overloading in namespaces. // this code will compile (if your compiler supports C++11 strongly typed enums) enum class Color {RED, GREEN, BLUE}; enum class Feelings {EXCITED, MOODY, BLUE}; The use of the word class is meant to indicate that each enum type really is different and not comparable to other enum types. In C++11, enum may optionally be followed by class or struct to define a scoped enum. Conditions for Function Overriding. The C# language is an object-oriented language that is aimed at enabling programmers to quickly build a wide range of applications for the Microsoft. The formatting of real-part and imag-part is controlled by flags associated with the stream. It must return a single complex number. overloading operator using friend function; How to overload ; friend overload operator; friend function operator ; CPP program for overloading and operator using friend function; code of unary operator using friend function in cpp; c how to print overloaded operator with friend functions. In (1) we define our variant type. What is Overloading? Overloading is the technique to use a single identifier to define various methods or techniques of a class that differs in their input and output parameters. C++ program for unary minus (-) operator overloading. 5, I don't see why the operator overloading has been left apart. This is the reason enum class is also called scoped enumeration. But the ostream class overloads the operator, converting it into an output tool. For more information, refer to the descrip tion of the operator <<(ostream&, double) in class ostream. I count for each operator, how often it was called. Operator overloading allows operators to work in the same manner. To do this, you will need to decide what you want your input and output format to look like. In this article we will discuss how to overload postfix and prefix increment and decrement operators in c++. In addition to overloaded global new functions, each class can have its own set of operator new and delete functions. If user does not overload operator = for a class. Type safe enum idiom wraps the actual enumerations in a class or a struct to provide strong type-safety. Multi-Threaded Programming with C++11 Part A (start, join(), detach(), and ownership) Multi-Threaded Programming with C++11 Part B (Sharing Data - mutex, and race conditions, and deadlock) Multithread Debugging Object Returning Object Slicing and Virtual Table OpenCV with C++ Operator Overloading I Operator Overloading II - self assignment. I'm using this for now with a few small. The intent is to encourage programmers to integrate their data types into the C++ language as fully as possible. Except for automatic variables, operator new is the only way to call an object's constructor in C++. There have been a couple of occasions where I’ve gone through larger C++ programs ripping out “clever” ideas which turned out to make things more complicated overall – usually due to excessive use of inheritance or clever but not quite clever enough memory management. Underground Storage Tank Class A and B Operator Training Schedule. C++ Operator Overloading Guidelines. Thus, a programmer can use operators with user-defined types as well. Operator Overloading Operator Overloading does not allow us to alter the meaning of operators when applied to built-in types one of the operands must be an object of a class Operator Overloading does not allow us to define new operator symbols we overload those provided for in the language to have meaning for a new type of. In C++, that type of polymorphism is called overloading. For example, - (subtraction) is a binary operator, so to support Fraction subtraction you need a shared method that takes two Fraction arguments. auto¶ Instances are replaced with an appropriate value for Enum members. One of the nice features of C++ is that you can give special meanings to operators, when they are used with user-defined classes. , Difference between dynamic and static casting?. An operator function is declared and can be called like any other function. Please try again later. Also, you will learn where enums are commonly used in C++ programming. org/show_bug. but I can't just put this overloaded CType function in the enum block for obvious reasons, so where would it go? Am I missing something or is it simply impossible to overload operators for enumerated types in VB? To give you a further understanding of what I want, in C++ overloading operators for situations like this was quite simple and. These functions are not a members of the class and they do not have 'this' pointer. It may be declared first and defined later. Overloading outside of class/struct:. One of the nice features of C++ 11 is scoped enums ("enum class"). Recall from last week's lab that we designed and implemented two resistor classes. C++ Operator Functions, also known as operator overloading are a kind of syntactic sugar that allow developers to use natural operators (+, -, /, * etc. Overloaded operators are shared methods that accept the number and type of arguments based on the operator count. The program uses the standard C++ library for these functions. c++ documentation: Iteration over an enum. Operator Overloading. C++ has a vector class within the std namespace. Operator Overloading in C++ by Andrei Milea In C++ the overloading principle applies not only to functions, but to operators too. I get a compiler. html#RamachandranHAW03 2-8 V. C++11 is a version of the standard for the programming language C++. 1 complain that the overloaded operator function is ambiguous. In c#, enum is a keyword which is used to declare an enumeration. c++ c++11 operator-overloading enum-class. The concept of overloading is generally used when a program block conceptually executes the same task but with a slight distinctness in a set of parameters. These constant values are also called enumerators, where all enumerators are a type of its enumeration. Enums were added to the C standard when the language was standardized by ANSI in 1989. Solution and Sample Code. You declare an operator function with the keyword operator preceding the operator. c++11 vendredi 26 juillet 2019. What is Overloading in C++ ? C++ allows you to specify more than one definition for a function name or an operator in the same scope, which is called function overloading and operator overloading respectively. 1 complain that the overloaded operator function is ambiguous. 2012-03-31 Anders Carlsson 32-bit plug-ins need to opt into magnified mode https://bugs. If we have two objects of complex number class as fellows,complex obj3 =obj1 ^obj2 ;. Using a Class Instead of Enums In C++ and C# we'd need to create a class and then overload the operator | to allow OR-ing of types trafficlights. In the case of operator<< and operator>> this means the stream classes not your data class is where these operators are defined. Further details on the Python class interface. A function must either be declared or defined before it is used. Operator overloading basics It is quite true that operator overloading looks such a big deal for beginners. setw() sets the number of characters to be used as the field width for the next insertion operation. In addition to overloaded global new functions, each class can have its own set of operator new and delete functions. The shared_ptr Smart Pointer; Generic Smart Pointers. In a string enum, each member has to be constant-initialized with a string literal, or with another string enum member. // program to overload the unary operator ++. 5 was just released and with it comes a new Q_ENUM macro, a better alternative to the now deprecated Q_ENUMS (with S). Simple answer: Dont use enum class, use normal enum instead, they can be implicitly cast to their underlying type (default int). No operators other than those listed in the table may be defined on a class or record. Class-specific operator new. FTDCS 2003 http://www. We need to overload new[] and delete[] along with new & delete to keep dynamic allocation of arrays in synch with other objects. In C#, method overloading works with two methods that accomplish the same thing but have different types or numbers of parameters. I use c++ 11 enum class usually instead of the old enums because many enums can contain the same value but as known they don't have the bitwise operators out of the box so we should define them manually. Just as a reminder, overloading is what happens when you have two methods with the same name but different signatures. Operator overloading is one of the advanced concepts of C++. Overloading Relational Operator in C++. You could create a map of string to enum and then call it with something like outputString = map[input_enum_value];, or you could use an array of strings organised so that the zeroth string corresponds to the enum value 0, and the first string corresponds to the enum. A C++ Enumeration(Enums) defines a class type through which we can define a list of constants. Currently C++ Standard does not allow overloading of copy assignment operator as non-member function; overloaded assignment operator must be member function of user defined class. In function operator(), x is an object of class minutes. It means the behavior of operators when applied to objects of a class can be redefined. Programmers are often advised not to overload global operator new, and to stick to overloading just class specific operator new. C++ syntax for overloading new and delete is simple. This gives the operator more than one meaning, or "overloads" it. Create a class string with character array as a data member and write program to add two strings with use of operator overloading concept in c++. C# improves on C++ in a similar way to Java in many respects, so I'm not going to be re-explaining things like the benefits of a single-rooted object hierarchy. One advantage is that code which uses a class with overloaded operators can be written more. The equation hour=minute invokes the operator function. We need to overload new[] and delete[] along with new & delete to keep dynamic allocation of arrays in synch with other objects. To use the operator + to add two objects, you need to overload it. Overloading the Stream Insertion Operator (<<) Rather than writing a print() method for a class, it can be convenient to overload the stream insertion operator to work with our new data type. We must know following things before we start overloading these operators. Operator overloading allows C/C++ operators to have user-defined meanings on user-defined types (classes). C++ program to overload unary operators i. overload the operator == to compare. You can implement C++ operator overloads by providing special member-functions on your classes that follow a particular naming convention. Operator Overloading. The class consists of a data member str to store string and a function getdata() to read value of str from user. Semantically, this enum describes a color which is either red, green, blue or a specified RGB value. In addition to overloaded global new functions, each class can have its own set of operator new and delete functions. Answer includes a simple program to overload new and delete operator in C++ class with important points about overloaded new and delete. Currently C++ Standard does not allow overloading of copy assignment operator as non-member function; overloaded assignment operator must be member function of user defined class. For example, division operator "/" divides two integers when used as a / b. Hide The Data Elements Of The Class Using Private Keyword. It adds the attributes of two Box objects and returns the resultant Box object. Similarly, while creating a second object 'b' of the class Student, we didn't pass anything to the object 'b' as Student b;. Operator Overloading in C# Class of Weight; Time Class Using Operator Overloading; Operator OverLoading in Hight Class ( Code ) Distance Class in C#; Linked List in C#; Bill in C# using Form Application; Items Class in C#; Items Price Calculation in C#; Simple Calculator in C#; Object Oriented Analysis & Design; Structured Software Analysis. This is called function overriding. User-defined conversions do not take parameters, as there is no way to pass arguments to them. Functions that overload operators need to be marked with the operator modifier. C++ allows you to specify more than one definition for a function name or an operator in the same scope, which is called function overloading and operator overloading respectively. Find more on PROGRAM OF OVERLOADING ARITHMETIC OPERATORS ON OBJECTS OF CLASS FLOAT HAVING AN DATA MEMBERS OF TYPE FLOAT Or get search suggestion and latest updates. Using a Class Instead of Enums In C++ and C# we'd need to create a class and then overload the operator | to allow OR-ing of types trafficlights. */ #include using namespace std; class complex {float real,imag; public:. Overloading operators (C++ only) An overloaded operator is called an operator function. Operator overloading • You can define almost all C++ operators for a class or enumeration operands – that’s often called “operator overloading”. Class rule summary: C. You can overload any of these operators, which can be used to compare the objects of a class. Currently C++ Standard does not allow overloading of copy assignment operator as non-member function; overloaded assignment operator must be member function of user defined class. It creates a new enum called enum_b::constant that won't conflict with enum_a::constant. For example - let's declare an enumeration Fruits and some its enumerators. In C++ 11, enum class is a so that each gridBlock takes a value from tetroType then you can override operator== to. Scope resolution operator (::) in C++ programming language is used to define a function outside a class or when we want to use a global variable but also has a local variable with the same name. unique ¶ Enum class decorator that ensures only one name is bound to any one value. As an example, we will define together a complex number class. Write A C++ Program For Addition & Multiplication Of Two Matrices By Overloading + And * Operators. C++11 introduced a new feature in the form of scoped enumerations, also referred to as enum classes, since they are introduced with the double keyword enum class (though enum struct is also permissible, to identical effect). The enumeration() is a method of Java Collections class which is used to get the enumeration over the specified collection. I'd like to make a template overload of operator | for an enum inside a class. All classes have a default copy constructor, assignment operator, and destructor, which perform the corresponding operations on each data member and each base class as shown above. However, some words of caution. User-defined conversions do not have a return type. The overloaded operator << should add "" to the stream where is the real part and is the imaginary part of the complex number which is then passed as a parameter to the overloaded operator. Short answer, yes. Classes • The idea: - A class directly represents a concept in a program • If you can think of "it" as a separate entity, it is plausible that it could be a class or an object of a class • Examples: vector, matrix, input stream, string, FFT, valve controller, robot arm, device driver, picture on screen, dialog. In (2) we define a class with an overloaded operator(). Answer includes a simple program to overload new and delete operator in C++ class with important points about overloaded new and delete. For this reason it's currently impossible to overload assignment operator to make it behave like assignment operator for built-in type. Contents1 Mixed Operations1. we can overload these operators by giving them the capability to work on user-defined data types. Such C++-only features (easily identified by the keyword lists) include: the Boolean type (bool) the 4 specific cast operations (compared to older C-style casting) classes and objects. HugeIntClass + long int •Can be a member function. (use friend function). In (3) we define a vector of variants. Assignment operator must be overloaded by a non-static member function only. Implementing the Operator Overloading. I get a compiler. When an operator function is implemented as a member function, the leftmost (or only) operand must be a class object (or a reference to a class object) of the operator. 5 was just released and with it comes a new Q_ENUM macro, a better alternative to the now deprecated Q_ENUMS (with S). C++ program for unary increment (++) and decrement (--) operator. C++ offers the operator new in four variations. To define an enumeration, keyword enum is used. value1 return "This is value 1" case. Operator Overloading Rec. Functions that overload operators need to be marked with the operator modifier. C++11 introduced a new feature in the form of scoped enumerations, also referred to as enum classes, since they are introduced with the double keyword enum class (though enum struct is also permissible, to identical effect). In C++, stream insertion operator "<<" is used for output and extraction operator ">>" is used for input. We will use our lab work from last week and enhance the base resistor class by overloading several operators. User-defined conversions do not have a return type. InheritEnum solves this problem by allowing you to leave the first enum declaration as is and add another enum declaration with new enum types. C++ :: Operator Overloading In Complex Number Class May 29, 2013. To use the operator + to add two objects, you need to overload it. All classes have a default copy constructor, assignment operator, and destructor, which perform the corresponding operations on each data member and each base class as shown above. This chapter describes diagnostic messages generated by the SAS/C C++ Development System and SAS/C C++ Cross-Platform Development System. If you have a compiler that checks your usage of enums (e. In C++, stream insertion operator “<<” is used for output and extraction operator “>>” is used for input. In C++ 11, enum class is a so that each gridBlock takes a value from tetroType then you can override operator== to. We are trying to better understand customer views on social support experience, so your participation in this interview project would be greatly appreciated if you have time. Class rule summary: C. Operator overloading facilitates the specification of user-defined implementation for operations wherein one or both operands are of user-defined class. The C# language is an object-oriented language that is aimed at enabling programmers to quickly build a wide range of applications for the Microsoft. 36 When two operators are opposites (such as == and !=), it is appropriate to define both. perform pre-increment and post decrement operation on a vector object using operator overloading. Take the example code snippet 1: What would you expect to happen? When compiled on Microsoft Visual Studio 2005, main() returns true. C++ Operator overloading suggest change. It must return a single complex number. For example to overload + you would use the function name operator+. I count for each operator, how often it was called. In C++, we can make operators to work for user defined classes. Write a C++ program to Operator Overloading Using a Friend Function. I tend to favour a simpler approach: provide explicit conversion operations. Online C++ operator overloading programs and examples with solutions, explanation and output for computer science and information technology students pursuing BE, BTech, MCA, MTech, MCS, MSc, BCA, BSc. In addition to overloaded global new functions, each class can have its own set of operator new and delete functions. The function for operator is declared by using the operator keyword followed by the operator. Jamie King showing how to overload the left shift (sometimes called the stream insertion operator). Every operator in C++ on enums can be written without casting to an. This is what makes operator overloading work with classes in different namespaces. There are two types of operator overloading in C++. Where appropriate, go ahead and use this feature. While the rest of the operators are applied only once, operator-> will be applied by the compiler as many times as needed to get to a raw pointer and once more to access the memory referred by that pointer. Now as we can see it overloaded the new and delete operator at global level therefore every object created on heap through new operator was created by our custom overloaded operator. Note that enum class in C++11 will eliminate the need of this idiom. to compare two object of any class. C++ program to overload unary pre-increment operator and provide support for assignment operator (=). These are strongly typed enumerations, they do not cast implicitly to or from the underlying integer type. To access a specific operator method of a specific class or record, you must use explicit typecasts on all of the operands. Let’s take a quick look at operator overloading with member functions. Operating Overloading Most languages allow programmers to define custom data types such as enums, structs, and classes. A function must either be declared or defined before it is used. *Temperature conversion in C++ using Classes and objects:. A nonmember, non-friend version, that Josh kindly suggested (read more in the comments below): Have questions about this code?. c++11 vendredi 26 juillet 2019. It is extremely important that we pay close attention to the type and value returned. Since I do not have much time this week I will translate and update the first of a small series of articles I have written for a German C++ forum some time ago. List of C++ Operator Overloading programs. Proxy classes; Built-in Types. The formatting of real-part and imag-part is controlled by flags associated with the stream. So I'm writing a game using c++ and in my tutorial state, I have different steps that the user goes through, explaining how the game works. My problem is that it only works for the first row of data. Overloading operator in c pdf The proposed method for extending a language uses operator overloading. Strongly typed enums, enum classes, also have better scoping. 2 Mixed Operators and Automatic Conversions1. C++ Tutorial; Operator Overloading; enum operator. Bitwise Operator Overloading with Enums? By Sean_Seanston , July 20, 2009 in General and Gameplay Programming This topic is 3734 days old which is more than the 365 day threshold we allow for new replies. The compiler provides a default overloaded version that does the memberwise copying. Scoped enums don't automatically convert to integers, helping with type safety. Effective Operator Overloading. Operator overloading allows C/C++ operators to have user-defined meanings on user-defined types (classes). I had my problems with that as well when I started with C++ and kept ignoring it considering it to be a complex thingie. So enum id. C++ permits user code to declare overloaded versions of the built-in operators using the operator keyword, so long as one of the parameters is a user-defined type. This of course only works for values of types for which there is an overloading of the operator<<. For example, (a) the bit left-shift operator << is overloaded to perform stream insertion if the left operand is a ostream object such as cout; (b) the operator * could. First we are finding the length of the given string using strlen and allocating a char size equals to the length of the. Operator overloading. 10 Rules of Operator Overloading in C++ Every programmer knows the concept of operation overloading in C++. Operator Overloading Operator Overloading does not allow us to alter the meaning of operators when applied to built-in types one of the operands must be an object of a class Operator Overloading does not allow us to define new operator symbols we overload those provided for in the language to have meaning for a new type of. Here's a Simple C++ program to find Volume using Function Overloading in C++ Programming Language. It must return a single complex number. Operator Overloading could (and should) be introduced, yes, but not in this manner. That is because the left hand side of << is an std::ostream& object, not your object. These keyword lists already help identify some of the C++-only features, things that were added into C++ but are not allowed in strict C coding. To overload operator for class C so that we can. Operator overloading is an important concept in C++. A C++ Enumeration(Enums) defines a class type through which we can define a list of constants. Write a C++ Illustrates multiple objects for a class. Semantically, this enum describes a color which is either red, green, blue or a specified RGB value. The formatting of real-part and imag-part is controlled by flags associated with the stream. The program converts minutes to hours. If we overload a relational operator as a method, the left operand will be passed implicitly and can be accessed using the this pointer. All the operators listed exist in C++; the fourth column "Included in C", states whether an operator is also present in C. All the operators listed exist in C++; the fourth column "Included in C", states whether an operator is also present in C. NET framework, you will soon realize that method overloading is used all over the place. DayOfWeek] enum class to the most generic class [System. The compiler's version is dangerous for classes. The other day I was chatting to Rich Talbot-Watkins about C++ stuff and he sent me some example code which shows how unusual the C++ function overloading rules can be. In C++ the meaning of existing operator can be extended to operate on user-defined data or class data. Operator Overloading 5 Operator Overloading Operator overloading allows existing C++ operators to work with user-defined data types. Overloaded operators are distinct from overloaded functions, but like overloaded functions, they are distinguished by the number and types of operands used with the operator. I'ld add a few enhancements to answer to How can I define a template on operator overloading in C++? Operators are functions, and overloading in temples happens by specialization. Thus, the function of child class overrides the function in parent class when called by an object of the child class. Nevertheless, even though enumerations define a class type, you do not instantiate an enum using the new operator/keyword. The Fight Against Ambiguity. I want to overload the comparison operators for this class so that it can participate in all types of comparison including <. To overload operator for class C so that we can. Now as you can see in main(), we have two variables emp1 and emp2 of type Employee and we can use the assignment operator directly in our last line of code, It is all because of assignment operator overloading or operator overloading of operator “ = ”. I get a compiler error saying it's unable to. , Difference between dynamic and static casting?. in Concord, NH (unless a different City/Town is noted). Binary operators require two operands, and they are overloaded by using member functions and friend functions. C++ Overloading the Left Shift Operator In Place of Writing ToString() C++ Tutorial 20-1. I'd like to make a template overload of operator | for an enum inside a class. This is the reason enum class is also called scoped enumeration. If operator()() operator function is overloaded in a. Essential Books. com Free Programming Books Disclaimer This is an uno cial free book created for educational purposes and is. QFlags is used throughout Qt for storing combinations of enum values. The program converts minutes to hours. Enum class as follows: enum Color extends java. Both C and C++ use the same enumeration syntax. Overloading the Stream Insertion Operator (<<) Rather than writing a print() method for a class, it can be convenient to overload the stream insertion operator to work with our new data type. FTDCS 2003 http://www. Overloading an assignment operator and an addition operator to allow statements like object2 = object2 + object1 implies that the += operator is also overloaded. So the mechanism of adding special meaning to an operator is called operator overloading. There is no built-in to iterate over enumeration.
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